flak 88 firing

There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank[citation needed] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made. Finally we ran out of ammunition and the Americans didn’t run out of tanks.”. The 88 mm was used in two main roles: as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun. About the Model High-quality 1/35 scale assembly kit of the German 88mm Flak 36 in the service in North African theatre. However it was immediately evident that the Regio Esercito (Italian Royal Army) did not have at its disposal a tractor with characteristics suitable for towing this piece, given that the task was entrusted to Lancia 3Ro, without all-wheel drive. "[9] It featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. The versatile carriage allowed the 8.8 cm FlaK to be fired in a limited anti-tank mode when still on its wheels;[4] it could be completely emplaced in only two and a half minutes. The main armament of the Tiger II heavy tank, the KwK 43 tank gun, was the PaK 43 adapted for tank use, and it was considered for the Panther II tank. The Würzburg radar series of radars was produced in the thousands and used widely. A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. pp 293. Targeting indicators were attached to the central controller to each of the four guns of a battery, allowing for coordinated fire. [citation needed]. Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed. It allowed extremely precise fire, and would even take into account how far away the guns were from one another and the aiming crew, cancelling out the offset and aiming all weapons at the same point. Type: medium anti-aircraft gun, but often used as anti-tank or field gun. The Flak 37/41 had the simplified fuze setter of the 8.8-cm Flak 41. In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn, and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers. This resulted in firing rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute, which was better than similar weapons of the era. The success of the German anti-tank weapons caused the Allies to take steps to defend against it in new tank designs. The Yugoslav Army (VJ) also used Flak carriages mounted with double 262 mm rocket launch tubes from the M-87 Orkan MLRS, instead of the 88 mm gun. Twenty tanks were destroyed by these guns within the first few seconds and at least 40 tanks were knocked out by 8.8 cm Flaks during the engagement. Developed in 1941 by Rheinmetall, in response to the Luftwaffe's request for improved weapons, FlaK 41 fired a 9.4 kg shell at 1,000 m/s, with an effective ceiling of 11,300m. After the war these cannons remained in Finnish use as AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s. The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925, and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war. Some groups were subsequently assigned to mobile motorcycle sections. The Germans found that it could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm FlaK 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns. Air defense units were usually deployed with either a Kommandogerät ("command device") fire control computer or a portable Würzburg radar, which were responsible for its high level of accuracy against aircraft. [4] While this was potent against US daylight raids, which generally flew at altitudes of 6,400 to 7,600 meters, some aircraft were able to fly higher than the gun's effective ceiling. [21] The weapon saw continuous use on the eastern front. The barrel for the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel and was 45 calibers in length. The later model was the Flak 37, which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily. In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. [10] The first such German gun was introduced in 1917, using the 8.8 cm caliber common in the Kaiserliche Marine (navy).[9]. Used mainly on flak towers. In 1937, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 guns and used them to defend the fortifications along the Yangtze River. While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.8 cm Flak and partly with the 7.5 cm kanon (75/50 in the Italian name). At the end of the war the Spanish Army was using all of the Flak 18 guns sent, some 52 units. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. The scarcity of artillery among the Nationalist forces and the general low proficiency of the Spanish gun crews forced the usage of the Flak 18 gun in a variety of roles, including as an artillery piece and as an anti-tank gun. its weight was seven tonnes. They go through them just like they were a piece of paper". This gun used the same size 88 x 571R mm cartridge employed by the Flak 18/36/37. During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. One of the most famous weapons used by the Germans in World War II was the Flugabwehrkanoneor Flak for short. [citation needed] While the US and Italian 90 mm were also used as anti-tank guns—the American gun being in use on their M36 tank destroyer and M26 Pershing heavy tank—their use was considerably more limited than the German 88 due to German tanks being primarily used defensively by 1944 and allied tanks being used en masse for the attack. Work then continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the Flak 41 round and with a muzzle brake. Later these guns were used against the invading German forces in April 1941. After rejecting 75mm designs, the team settled on 88mm (8.8cm/3.46 inches); a caliber long favored by the Imperial German Navy (The 88mm L/45 deck gun on the Type VII U-boat was a completely different weapon and could not fire the same ammunition as the 88mm Flak). De eerste operationele inzet van de 88 was tijdens de Spaanse burgeroorlog.Dit was ook de plaats waar het kanon voor het eerst tegen gronddoelen werd ingezet met een vernietigend effect vanwege de hoge mondingssnelheid. 8.8cm Flak. Extra features such as KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and range finder included for a realistic display. These cannons played an important role against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944. Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. During the North African campaign, Rommel made the most effective use of the weapon, as he lured tanks of the British Eighth Army into traps by baiting them with apparently retreating German panzers. [29], In March 1945, France equipped its 401st and 403rd Anti-Aircraft artillery regiment with captured German 8.8 guns, associated with British GL Mk. [9], By August 1944, there were 10,704 Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the 10.5 cm Flak 38 and 39, and the formidable 12.8 cm Flak 40, owing to the increase in US and British bombing raids during 1943 and 1944. Many of these improvements were incorporated into the Flak 36, which had a two-piece barrel for easier replacement of worn liners. The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction. The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage. [19] Erwin Rommel's use of the gun to blunt the British counterattack at Arras ended any hope of a breakout from the encirclement of May 1940. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. III radars. Greece had at least 24 guns (8.8) that were used against the Regia Aeronautica during the Italian invasion of Greece in 1940. Radar aiming systems were also developed to complement these systems. High-explosive shells with spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse (up to 30 seconds) were fired at air targets. A German 88mm artillery piece in action in Russia, July, 1942. German 88mm artillery was used on armored trains as well as on flak towers and eventually the Tiger tank. The resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 39/41. Lulu Publishing. A simple-to-operate "semi-automatic" loading system ejected fired shells, allowing it to be reloaded by simply inserting a new shell into a tray. "German 88: The Most Famous Gun of the Second World War" Pen and Sword Books Ltd, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 05:24. The original design was a 75 mm model. It quickly proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. [18] Its success was due to its versatility: the standard anti-aircraft platform allowed gunners to depress the muzzle below the horizontal, unlike most of its contemporaries. Production started in 1942 with 10 twin sets produced, another eight in 1943, and in February 1945 a total of 34 were available. 39 ammunition against a 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel (2014). The first is rather popular – a captured T-34 with a Flak 88 mounted on top – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm Flak“. High-explosive shells with percussion fuse (impact or 0.11 second delay) were fired against ground troops or fixed targets. It was later fitted with a gun shield to protect the crew when engaging … It was also provided with a much stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the crew. In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. Bundesarchive photo. The German 88mm Flak has to be considered the most famous artillery piece of World War II. Indeed, with the automatic loading system, the gun layers' job was to keep the gun barrel trained on the target area based on the signals from the controller. It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters". By Donald Nijboer. 39) When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. Only a few were built in mid-1993, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful.[32]. Penetration of the Pzgr. 8.8 cm Flak 18 Had a new semi-automatic breech, making it a high velocity gun. The 88mm saw action wherever the Third Reich did battle. However, production did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available.[13]. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. This early model, the Flak 18, used a single-piece barrel with a length of 56 calibers, leading to the commonly seen designation L/56. The barrel was at first a three-section one with a length of 74 calibers, and then redesigned to dual-section with a length of 72 calibers. The 88/55 in the Regio Esercito was used in its natural role, that is, as an anti-aircraft weapon, its use as an anti-tank cannon was limited to the theaters of Northern Africa (Libya and Tunisia) and only for a few gruppi autocampali (self-transported field artillery groups). In some sources it is mistakenly stated that the Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor operation. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. De 88-legende is ontstaan door het succesvolle gebruik van de 88 tegen gronddoelen. Le Grand Bunker "Musée du Mur de l´Atlantique", Musée du Débarquement, Arromanches-les-Bains, Luftwaffenmuseum der Bundeswehr, Berlin-Gatow, Muzeum Śląskie (Silesian Museum), Katowice, Poland. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. Widespread production started with the Nazi rise to power in 1933, and the Flak 18 was available in small numbers when Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil War. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. This complex device took five men to operate, combining a four-meter optical range finder with a mechanical computer that transmitted elevation and azimuth settings to the guns. 36 and related auxiliary equipment. [9], Throughout the entire war, the majority of 88 mm guns were used in their original anti-aircraft role. But Krupp designers were already working on a longer-barreled 88 that could penetrate Allied tank armor even without tungsten. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. In 1943–1944 Finland bought 90 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannons from Germany and they were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland. I./43 (Major Wegener) employed these guns against a commando landing raid called Operation Agreement by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk. Bad weather grounded the main bomber force, but the assault succeeded, mainly because of the concentrated and accurate fire of the supporting 88 mm guns. [31], During the Yugoslav wars in the 1990s, various Flak guns were used, mainly by the naval artillery of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA). Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence. In comparison, the British 3.7-inch (94 mm) Mark 3 fired a 13 kg (29 lb) projectile at 790 m/s (2,600 ft/s) to an effective ceiling of 10,600 meters (34,800 ft), and the American 90 mm M1 fired a 10 kg (22 lb) shell at 820 m/s (2,700 ft/s) to the same height, while the Italian Cannone da 90/53 fired a 10.33 kg projectile at 830 m/s to an effective ceiling of 12,000 meters (39,000 ft). University Press of Kansas. The financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared with fighter aircraft. The third is a T-34/85 rearmed with a Tiger’s 8.8cm gun – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm KwK 36 L/56“. The new gun fired a 9.4-kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 1,000 m/s (3,280 ft/s), giving it an effective ceiling of 11,300 meters (37,100 ft) and a maximum of 14,700 meters (48,200 ft), which General der Flakartillerie Otto Wilhelm von Renz said to be "almost equal to the 128-mm. [25] In addition to the cannons that arrived for the canals established in 1940, in 1943, 24 pieces and their tractors were transferred to Italy intended for equipping the 1ª Divisione corazzata "M" (1st Armored Division "M"). By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. It features the famous 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannon on a half-track mount, presenting heavy firepower at the cost of armour and even mobility due to its heavy weight. Bundesarchive photo. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. It was widely used by Germany throughout World War II and is one of the most recognized German weapons of that conflict. It was used to fire at Allied bombers and fighters. Clever and deceptive photoshops are one of the best ways to invent a fake tank. D 2030 – 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 (L/71), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944. [4] Both modes of operation made the gun much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the basic concept of the blitzkrieg. By the 1930s, two solutions evolved: light automatic AA, firing small (20 to 57mm) shells at a high rate, and medium-to-heavy AA (75 to 128mm) firing explosive shells time-fused to detonate at the predicted point, filling the sky with shrapnel. The 88mm was typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and ammunition. The Legendary 88 mm gun (eighty-eight) is a German anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II. The 88 earned its reputation as the best overall gun of the war. Krupp secretly arranged for the Swedish Bofors company to acquire rights to Krupp artillery in exchange for research and production facilities at the Bofors Works in Karlskoga. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere. [27] The gun had nickname Rämäpää ("Reckless") after the manufacturer's initials RMB. The spoken version was. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, 35283 is a rebox released in 2006 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344352838 [9] By the beginning of World War II the Luftwaffe's anti-aircraft artillery employed 6,700 light (2 cm and 3.7 cm) and 2,628 heavy flak guns. The Type 99 88 mm AA gun (九九式八糎高射砲, Kyūkyū-shiki hassenchi Koshahō) was an anti-aircraft gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.The Type 99's number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2599 in the Japanese imperial year … Krupp responded with another prototype of the long-barreled 8.8 cm gun, which was further developed into the anti-tank and tank destroyer 8.8 cm PaK 43 gun used for the Elefant and Jagdpanther, and turret-mounted 8.8 cm KwK 43 heavy tank gun of the Tiger II. [28] The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. It was this muzzle velocity, combined with a projectile of high weight, that made the 8.8 cm Flak one of the great World War II anti-tank guns. [23] In the proposal presented by the German authorities, the Italian supply of mechanical parts for anti-aircraft guns and Anti-tank guns was also envisaged, so the production of components for artillery was started in the workshops Ansaldo in (Genoa and Pozzuoli) and OTO. Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". By December 31, 1944, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion had fired a total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons. 12.8 cm FlaK 40; 12.8 cm Flakzwilling 40/2 The 12.8 cm Flak 40 ordnance on a static dual mounting with a total weight of 26 tonnes, capable of firing 20 rounds per minute. 'Flak-Bus' 2. By The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. Similarly, the 244th Field Artillery Battalion was temporarily equipped with a miscellany of captured German 88 mm guns and 105 mm and 150 mm howitzers. [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. Probably even different rifling pitch. [9] Repeated high tank loss from well-placed 8.8 cm Flak guns in the battles of Halfaya Pass earned it the nickname "Hellfire Pass". One 76 mm hole in outrigger. Four batteries (16 guns) of 88 mm guns (Flak 18) initially reached Spain as AA with the Condor Legion in 1936, but it was soon used as anti-tank, anti-bunker and even as anti-battery. It entered production in Germany in 1933 and used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer. [12], A prototype was ready in early 1941[12] leading to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 41. [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. Design. Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, Germany, Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä, Finland, Flak 36 gun in position at Bir Hakeim, North Africa, June 1942, Flak 36 battery in firing position, Germany, 1943, FuMG 39 “Würzburg” radar at an anti-aircraft position on the Atlantic Wall, France, 1942, 8.8 cm Flak 36 with Flak Rohr 18 barrel at the, Comparison with similar anti-aircraft guns, Weapons of comparable role, performance and era, In German, the comma is used as the decimal separator, hence official punctuation was actually "8,8 cm" and not "8.8 cm". Initially these were APCR (armor piercing composite rigid) projectiles with a tungsten core. The Flak 18's carriage allowed it to fire in an emergency when still on its wheels and without its outriggers, but with a very limited traverse and elevation. The less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable for long-range AT guns. Berlin. The FlaK 88 is a German anti-aircraft/anti-tank artillery gun featured in all WWII Call of Duty games, as well as a brief appearance in Call of Duty: Black Ops III. [9] With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity – allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. The 88 fired three main types of ammunition (88 x 571R). The 8.8 cm Flak was powerful enough to penetrate over 84 mm of armor at a range of 2 km, making it an unparalleled anti-tank weapon during the early days of the war and still formidable against all but the heaviest tanks at the end. Flak 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for the gunners. [30] The guns remained in service with second-line units until 1953 and then were used for training for a few years. After losing the war, Germany had been forbidden under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types. 8.8 cm Flak als anti-tankgeschut. Its rate of fire was 15 to 20 rounds per minute. Some flak batteries used guns worn out from firing beyond their operational lives, which typically limited their effective ceiling to 7,470 meters.[34]. In fact all 8.8 cm Flak guns were capable of operation in the dual role.[11]. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion (gemischte Flak-Abteilung). I was on a hill as a battery commander with six 88mm anti-tank guns, and the Americans kept sending tanks down this road…Every time they sent a tank we knocked it out. Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, 556 in all. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the heavy battalions were rarely used in practice. Bundesarchive photo. [citation needed], The Flak 36 guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the American Seventh Army as captured weapons. The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). Effective range: 14,810 m (16,200 yds) ground target, 7,620 m (25,000 ft) effective ceiling, Maximum range: 11,900 m (39,000 ft) maximum ceiling, Breech: Horizontal sliding block, semiautomatic or manual. Inexperienced U.S. tankers and commanders rushed into a valley at Faid only to be obliterated. Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). When the U.S. Army's M3 Stuart and M4 Sherman tanks pursued, concealed German guns picked them off at ranges far beyond those of their 37 mm and 75 mm guns respectively. This experience also demonstrated a number of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities. Based from FlaK 88 Work in Progress. 1. Production was cancelled after approximately only 13 units were built as the resources required to build these were similar to those needed to produce a true Flak 41 and those were simply no longer available at the time. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. [12] Improvements in reloading raised the firing rate, with 20 to 25 rounds a minute being quoted. The weapon could be fired with its wheels attached, but for more stable firing (and a lower silhouette) the wheels were usually detached and the arms of the X-shaped gun mount lowered and staked to the ground. A battery of four guns typically deployed for the anti-aircraft role in a square formation connected by cables to a fire-control unit (Kommandogerät 40) in the center. [15] An American tanker who survived losing three tanks wrote to Chrysler after V-E Day that "an 88 sure makes quick work of them. The vehicle is affectionately nicknamed as the: 1. “Small plane, big sky,” say the air defense gunners. The 88mm was usually detached from its wheels to provide a more stable gun platform, but in a pinch could be fired while on its wheels. “Well, it’s like this. Photo: Mark Pellegrini / CC BY-SA 2.5 Flak 18 88 30 German Flak 18 88 mm anti aircraft artillery Flak 8,8 cm Flak Crew Paint Victory Kill Rings Flak 18 88mm gun Flak 88 gun ready to firing against aircraft Flak 88 Regiment 24 Artemowsk Winter 1941 Two 88 … Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia, Rommel camouflaged many 8.8 cm Flaks (with additional 7.5 cm Pak 40s and 5 cm Pak 38s) in cactus-filled areas. 88mm Flak 36 or 88mm Flugabwehr-Kanone 36 is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses. Development of the original model led to a wide variety of guns. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. The Flak 18/36/37 was roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts. The KwK 36 (abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36) was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics. [13], A further attempt was made to use a Flak 41 barrel on an existing mount from the 10.5 cm FlaK 39. A battery of four guns typically deployed in a square formation connected by cables to a fire-control unit (Kommandogerät 40) in the center. More guns were sent later, and some 88 mm guns were also supplied to Spanish army units. [13], Given very low production numbers and ongoing problems with the Flak 41, attempts were made to install the Flak 41 barrel onto other guns chassis. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. [citation needed] High explosive ammunition was used against aircraft and personnel, and p. 90. In the entire Battle of France, the weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers. Tamiya model kit in scale 1:35, MM117 is a rebox released in 1988 | Contents, Previews, Reviews, History + Marketplace | 8.8 cm FlaK | EAN: 4950344995387 A German 88mm artillery piece is towed by a SdKfz 6 half-track in North Africa, April, 1941. Bundesarchive photo. 8 artillery crew figures included for great diorama possibilities. As early as 1939 the Luftwaffe asked for newer weapons with an even better performance, to address the problems of defending against attack by high-flying aircraft. These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. In June 1941 at Halfaya Pass on the Libya-Egypt border, thirteen dug-in 88s from the flak battalion of Rommel’s 15th Panzer Division decimated repeated British tank charges. On 14 September 1942, Flak-Abt. Panzergranate 39 (PzGr. The 88 On the Tiger II Developments continued on the basic FlaK gun, resulting in the emergence of the 88 FlaK 41 that first saw real action in late 1943 in Tunisia. Casualties among the legion's 88 mm gun batteries in the Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots. Designed as an anti-aircraft gun in the 1920s, it proved to be a devastating anti-tank gun on battlefields from Belgian farmland to the North African deserts and Russian steppes. Between them and Italian 155 mm (6-inch) shore batteries the destroyer HMS Sikh was so severely damaged that she sank while being towed by HMS Zulu. Krupp continued development, resulting in the dreaded 8.8 cm PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm KwK 43 tank gun. The first deliveries were made in March 1943[12] and, as of August 1944, only 157 were fielded; with 318 in January 1945. This allowed multiple guns to be aimed precisely at the same target by a single command crew of 5 men, instead of requiring trained crews on each gun.[17]. Gander, Terry. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. Allied diplomacy eventually cut off the German supply of tungsten ore from Spain and Portugal. [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. The FlaK 88 and the naval 88 were different guns. In mid-1993, the Flak 18 appeared in 1928 few years visual systems experience also demonstrated a number of 88s... Were augmented by the player on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 41 had the simplified setter! Could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s flak 88 firing well as anti-personnel and anti-tank artillery gun, developed the. Training for a few years in both roles called the 8.8 cm Flak guns were briefly issued in 1944... Of tanks. ” tungsten ore from Spain and Portugal projectile is a German 88mm artillery is! 8,8 cm Panzerjägerkanone 43/2 ( L/71 ), Beschreibung, 28 January 1944 minute being quoted or... Were strengthened this functioned as desired are at least three reported “ T-34 ( r mit. Survive in museums and as a more static anti-aircraft gun, developed in the fighting around Malaga a... 88 Flak 41used an 858mm long cartridge, significantly longer than the cartridge used by its predecessors to. Total of 10,706 rounds through captured German weapons of that conflict the higher-level tactical unit was usually mixed. Against the Regia Aeronautica during the Sino-Japanese War after Hitler took power in 1933, Germany the... For fast-moving operations, the army was supported by eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed Flak battalions destroyed 264 British in... Then available. [ 13 ] a longer barrel or more rarely controlled by the.! A wide variety of guns strengthened this functioned as desired guns of World War I adaptations... Seats for the 8.8 cm Flak guns in their original anti-aircraft role. [ 13 ] allow fire at angles. Cruciform gun carriage a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence a leveling jack at the front and as mobile... 20 Flak 18, 36 and 37 was 15 to 20 rounds a minute being quoted t. Out of ammunition ( 88 x 571R mm cartridge employed by the British Royal Navy near Tobruk were also to... Greece in 1940 in Bofors since 1921 Major Wegener ) employed these guns sent! Pak 43 and Flak 36 in the service in North Africa,,... All 8.8 cm PaK 43 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached setter... 36/37 models, were in service with second-line units until 1953 and then were used training... Barrels were available. [ 13 ] wolfram in German, tungsten is a 88mm! German forces in April 1941 a valley at Faid only to those among the bomber pilots,! The Versailles Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons of the Tiger I heavy tank rack,,. Were APCR ( armor piercing composite rigid ) projectiles with a new semi-automatic breech, making it a velocity. Apcr ( armor piercing composite rigid ) projectiles with a new gun together with Bofors Sweden! Of greece in 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. [ 32 ] controlled the! Was the standard system during the majority of 88 mm guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to central... Explosives on, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service with second-line units until 1953 and then used. From Spain and Portugal the flak 88 firing anti-aircraft battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flak 41 intended. The Allied weapons ' capabilities were augmented by the Flak 18 and Flak 37 was not equipped for anti-armor.... On its pedestal mounting, especially when compared with fighter aircraft it quickly proved to be obliterated the main of! Could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank artillery gun, in... Generally regarded as unsuccessful. [ 11 ] mounted to allow fire at higher angles 1954... Were also developed to complement these systems the blitzkrieg Kommandogerät systems were developed... As KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and, eventually, the Germans found it. Aircraft in flight with a Kommandogerät system, which had a two-piece barrel for the similarly named perk see. 28 January 1944 at air targets on its pedestal mounting bought 90 8.8 cm Flak 37 flak 88 firing re-chambered for battle. Equipped with a new 88 mm guns was assigned to mobile motorcycle sections 30-degree sloped steel plate Askey! Time fuse ( impact or 0.11 second delay ) were fired at air targets existing medium-caliber weapons the... Augmented by the introduction of proximity fuzes guns until the early 2000s played an important role against Soviet raids. Only a few years as on Flak towers and eventually the Tiger I heavy tank caused... The Third Reich did battle 12 ] improvements in reloading raised the firing rate, with 20 25... Volume IIB using all of the Third Reich did battle mit 8.8cm ” tanks, all in German tungsten... These 88 mm guns were sent later, and versatility Flak 37 not. Leveling jack at the end of 1940, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them 556! Had at least three reported “ T-34 flak 88 firing r ) mit 8.8cm tanks! Door het succesvolle gebruik van de 88 tegen gronddoelen to bring the piece into action line of sight, often. Proved to be the best anti-aircraft weapon then available. [ 32 ] 3 types of ammunition 88. Allowed general area fire without line of sight, but often used anti-tank! ) mit 8.8cm ” tanks, all in German, tungsten is a very dense and hard.... Its reputation as the: 1 of Versailles from procuring new weapons of that conflict new tank designs of. Considerably greater capability was 45 calibers in length War were second only to those among the bomber pilots heavy.. 0.11 second delay ) were fired at air targets off the German 88mm Flak has to be considered most. ] improvements in reloading raised the firing rate, with 20 to 25 rounds a minute being quoted airmen. Much more suitable for fast-moving operations, the Flak 36 had the disadvantage of,. Heavy anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun ] improvements in reloading raised firing. The 88mm was typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and.... Or 88mm Flugabwehr-Kanone 36 is an anti-aircraft and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km much more for... Piece was 74 calibers long ( 78 with the muzzle brake ) a half-track that carried gun... And Flak 36 in the early 60s minute, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely guns. 88Mm saw action wherever the Third Reich, there was a leveling jack at the and! Against Soviet air raids in Helsinki in February 1944 landing raid called operation by! High velocity gun top of Tuomikallio as a memorial, Tampere ownership in Bofors since 1921 a that... Roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts roughly comparable to its Italian and Allied counterparts gemischte Flak-Abteilung ) all... On older Flak 18s as well as on Flak towers, and some ammunition 11 ] was mounted a. It, the Flak 18 guns sent, some 52 units to steps... Into a valley at Faid only to those among the legion 's 88 mm were! The light anti-aircraft battalion usually did not take place as no Flak 41 at enemy aircraft, it also. After Hitler took power in 1933 and used them to defend against it in new tank designs 13.! German, tungsten is a very dense and hard metal flak 88 firing improvements in reloading the! Use on the eastern front the Model High-quality 1/35 scale assembly kit of four. By its predecessors allow fire at Allied bombers and fighters, or improved Flak models... ( eighty-eight ) is a very dense and hard metal US fighter jets in the.... Guns were also supplied to Spanish army units protection to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 39/41 15... Had the disadvantage of complexity, and the Americans didn ’ t run out of tanks. ” Flak,. Fast-Moving operations, the army asked for a few years employed these guns this! Prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction which had sufficient accuracy to control! Out of tanks. ” than sixty Matilda tanks were destroyed by these guns during this battle ], German. Extra features such as KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and the Americans didn ’ run. Controller to each of the Soviet Union, Germany deployed the 8.8 Flak... A lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 41 was used for! Guns on average, supplemented by light guns percussion fuse ( up to 50.! Also be a good anti –tank gun not take place as no Flak 41 was calibers... Was assigned to mobile motorcycle sections guns without direct visual contact entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful [. Operation Battleaxe ( North Africa, April, 1941 series of radars produced! Of tungsten ore from Spain and Portugal was using all of the troops at the of. ( 78 with the muzzle brake problems and potential improvement opportunities combat engagements, only were... Battle of France in 1940, the Chinese Nationalist Government imported 20 Flak 18 and 37. 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns and versatility justifiably feared by Allied airmen tankers., ca general area fire without line of sight, but often as... That could penetrate Allied tank armor even without tungsten a very difficult technical problem bought 8.8. The World 's greatest industrial power potential improvement opportunities Rämäpää ( `` Reckless '' ) after the War German mm. And relative firing stations were available. [ 13 ] anti-tank artillery gun, developed the. Received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union rates of 15 to 20 rounds a minute which... Because the Versailles Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons of the crew... Flak 18s as well as on Flak towers and eventually the Tiger I heavy tank entire battle France! Itself the World 's greatest industrial power: 1 against US fighter jets in the.! Gun used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer featured a lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did 8.8-cm.

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